Mathematics is another core part of the curriculum at Bundaberg State High School. Students experience a balance of real-world and theoretically-challenging problems related to this area of study.

All students are required to study Mathematics in years 7, 8, 9 and 10. Mathematics is not compulsory in Year 11 and 12 at Bundaberg State High School, however the Queensland Curriculum & Assessment Authority requires that students meet a minimum numeracy requirement in order to obtain a QCE (Queensland Certificate of Education), and therefore it is strongly recommended that all students enrol in a Senior Mathematics subject. It is also advisable that all senior students complete a mathematics course to broaden their career options and develop life skills.